1:37:32 – Why individuals with an APOE4 gene variant don’t experience as much of a benefit to the brain when taking fish oil as an individual without the variant. But they experience the benefit when they eat fish. The explanation for this begins with a DHA (an omega-3 fatty acid) transport defect in individuals with the APOE4 variant. Getting DHA into the brain is important because it contributes to amyloid plaque clearance, decrease tau tangles, and glucose uptake into the brain. There are two forms of DHA, one is a regular form which can pass through a non-disrupted blood-brain barrier and the other is a phospholipid form which can more easily cross a disrupted blood-brain barrier. Individuals with the APOE4 variant have a blood-brain barrier that is in some ways disrupted, making the phospholipid form of DHA the only viable version of DHA for transport. Phospholipid DHA is found in fish but is more abundant in fish roe or eggs. DHA from fish oil can also become the phospholipid form necessary but it requires more fish oil. Dr. Patrick has the APOE4 variant and gets the necessary quantities of phospholipid DHA from consuming fish eggs.
1:43:44 – Large scale study on EPA (omega-3 fatty acid). 8000 patients were randomly given 4 grams of EPA for five years in different countries and the experiment controlled for placebo. Results showed that the risk for cardiovascular disease was lowered by 30%.
1:54:44 – Exogenous ketones. Dr. Patrick has tried these and claims that there are energy benefits but also cognitive benefits. She claims that for her, exogenous ketones are a double-edged sword because she feels less anxious, more in the present, and feeling less obsessed over the future. The flip side is that it lowers the blood sugar levels once the ketones wear off. Sulforaphane also affects glutathione in the brain and also has apparent anti-anxiety effects according to Dr. Patrick’s experience.
2:00:00 – Joe speculates that a good option would be a large plate of broccoli sprouts along with a ketone supplement. Dr. Patrick believes you can also get the benefits of lowered anxiety and increased attention towards being present by fasting rather than taking a ketone supplement. They both agree that this is a good candidate for what they call a ‘perfect podcast meal’, where the combination of fasting then consumption of broccoli sprouts would provide mental benefits. The only downside seems to be a crash that comes later (the flip side of the double-edged sword mentioned above). Dr. Patrick and Joe speculate that taking the broccoli sprouts with a high carb meal like oatmeal may mitigate the crashing effects.
2:04:30 – If you’re going to consume broccoli sprouts in a shake form then you need to blend the sprouts first and let them sit so that the precursor glucoraphanin can interact with the enzyme myrosinase to produce sulforaphane.
2:21:44 – Joe asks if there is a difference between a steam sauna and an infrared sauna. The studies that Dr. Patrick quotes typically use the standard IR sauna where the air is being heated. She believes that the key is the heat stress itself – regardless of which medium the heat transfers to your body. A lot of the benefits come when the sauna gets to 180 F. The studies have involved sauna exposure at 180F for 20 minutes.
2:23:27 – Dr. Patrick sites the multiple benefits that have been discovered through extensive study of the effects of sauna. Improvements in cardiovascular mortality – people who do it 4-7 times a week have a 50% improvement in cardiovascular related mortality, 2-3 is a 24% improvement. Alzheimer’s rates decrease by 60%. Improvements in vascular compliance have been shown – this is where the blood vessels are more reactive to pressure changes. The vascular compliance improvements were seen with just one session in the sauna. There have been observations of improvement in mitochondrial biogenesis – the creation of new mitochondria. Improvements in mitochondrial function have also been observed. There were also increases in anti inflammatory cytokines.
2:24:40 – A session in the sauna prior to a workout has shown to reduce delayed onset muscle soreness.
2:25:17 – Effects of sauna on the brain. Dr. Patrick has noticed cognitive benefits of using the sauna and investigated further by looking into work done by Dr. Charles Raison. Dr. Raison devised a gadget that increased the core body temperature by a degree and a half. Through a placebo controlled experiment, Dr. Raison found that even though the participants experienced placebo effects (70% thought they were being heated) the results showed that the exposure to the heat improved depressive symptoms within a week after one exposure.
2:43:50 – There are interesting studies that show that simply sitting still and breathing can activate a few enzymes such as telomerase, the enzyme tasked with rebuilding telomeres.