22:40 – It has been shown that people who go from a high fiber to a high protein diet experience changes in the microbiome as a result of a change in the fermentation process in the gut. Bacteria that was accustomed to fermenting the fibers that made its way into the gut are replaced with bacteria that ferment amino acids which are now more common thanks to the switch to a high protein diet. Putrification bacteria are one such category of amino acid fermenting bacteria that has been linked with colon cancer – patients with colon cancer have higher levels of this bacteria. There are also causal links shown in animal studies where a tumor can form by increasing the number of putrefaction bacteria. This bacteria produces putrescine and cadaverine which are genotoxic agents that damage DNA inside colon cells.
23:47 – Individuals on an omnivore diet that includes fermentable fibers along with meat protein provide the microbiome with fibers which when fermented by bacteria can promote a lactic acid rich environment that limit the growth of putrefaction bacteria and therefore lower the risk of colon cancer. When you eat plants, you promote the growth of fiber fermenting bacteria.26:35 – Confounding Factors
The main reason why we cannot agree on a perfect diet whilst having access to good work done by scientists and researchers, is due to the fact that it is very hard to navigate through confounding factors – the things that are having an effect on the results of an experiment but were not the focus of the experiment. Dr. Patrick sites a study where researchers looked at the differences in all cause mortality amongst vegetarians and meat eaters. The study found that there is in fact fewer cases of all cause mortality in vegetarians but only because the study did not account for other confounding factors such as smoking, drinking, and exercise. When they did account for these lifestyle differences (healthy meat eaters to healthy vegetarians) there was no difference in all cause mortality.
29:26 – Dr. Longo has shown that cancer cells are susceptible to dying when the host undergoes a prolonged fast.
One experiment done involved individuals with cancer who would fast for 72 hours prior to receiving standard of care. The stress activated bodily pathways that would typically not be activated – the cancer cells cannot undergo these processes and instead simply die off. Then, when the standard of care treatments such as chemotherapy began, the healthy non-cancer cells were less sensitive to the chemotherapy while cancer cells became more sensitive. In terms of genotoxic stress, the chemo and fasting act in similar ways – priming healthy cells for future instances of stress.
35:44 – Dr. Rhonda Patrick eats what she calls a modified paleo diet
36:48 – Ketogenic dieting instills confidence in researchers like Dr. Patrick thanks to the multiple lifelong studies testing for lifespan, brain functionality, aging, and more. She believes that diets such as the ketogenic diet and paleo with fasting have a lot to back them up compared to relatively new diets that have little more than anecdotal evidence.
37:31 – Placebo and nocebo effects. Genetics play a huge role in whether or not a person will fall victim more easily to placebo or nocebo. Placebo is experiencing a positive result just by knowing that you may experience it. The nocebo effect is the same except with a negative result. Some genes are responsible for the levels of dopamine in your brain, and if you have more dopamine you are likely the kind of person that would fall for the placebo effect. If you have less dopamine, you are likely to fall for the nocebo effect. The snippet of genetic code that’s responsible is called COMT.
40:22 – Joe asks a good question: are there foods that increase dopamine concentrations in the brain? Patrick responds with fish oil. She brings up the fact that schizophrenic individuals are lacking dopamine in their prefrontal cortex. Schizophrenic patients are prescribed large doses of fish oil as it can normalize their levels. The less than normal levels result in the symptoms of paranoia felt by schizophrenic individuals.
41:48 – International Fish Oil Standards Organization. They test fish oil companies and provide information on the levels of potentially harmful compounds and levels of oxidation. Dr. Patrick takes 5-6 grams of fish oil a day. She also takes a high dose DHA because it gets into breast milk.