Weight loss; Norepinephrine; Brown Fat
(Episode 773) 2:22:09 – Norepinephrine activated pathway. Norepinephrine activates a pathway in cells that cause the ramping up of metabolism. This can be observed when the body is exposed to a cold environment. Dr. Patrick recalls that when she first used the cryotherapy machine, she was shivering. The second time around, she didn’t shiver. What happens is the process of non-shivering thermogenesis. Norepinephrine causes the mitochondria in the adipose tissue to become active. This happens because norepinephrine increases the expression of a gene known as UCP1. UCP1 can cause the electrical charge of the outside and the inside of the mitochondria to uncouple (typically the mitochondria is negative on the inside and positive on the outside) and this scrambling of charges signals to the body that it must ramp up energy and mitochondria production in fat cells (brown fat). An increase of mitochondria in the fat can lead to fat reduction, this is sometimes a desired byproduct of cold exposure. This also leads to the less shivering when exposed to cold. Exposure to ten days (6 hours a day) of 50 degree air can increase the mitochondria in men’s fat by 38%.
Nicotinamide Riboside; Nicotinamide Mononucleotide; Creating New Mitochondria; Mitophagy
(Episode 901) 1:46:51 – Nicotinamide riboside and nicotinamide mononucleotide. These compounds are precursors to to vitamin B3. In the body they get converted into NAD. The mitochondria uses NAD to make energy. There have been studies where mice were fed nicotinamid riboside and nicotinamide mononucleotide. In these studies, researchers have discovered that nicotinamide mononucleotide delays aging in the liver, muscles, bones, and eyes. Recently there was a human study conducted involving nicotinamide riboside (the does was 24-32ml per kilogram of body weight) where subjects had delayed aging in tissues. The increased NAD leads to new mitochondria formation. Nicotinamide riboside can be found in supplement form; the supplement is called Elysium. Elysium also includes pterostilbene, which increases the amount of a certain bacteria in the gut that can convert ellagitannins (found in berries, nuts and particularly in pomegranates) into urolithin A. Urolithin A causes mitophagy, where damaged mitochondria is cleared away; this is similar to autophagy where the body clears away damaged cells. Mitochondria is very important for the way we age; if they decay, we decay. SO, what this combination of nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene does is create new healthy mitochondria (thanks to nicotinamide riboside) and get rid of the damaged mitochondria pool (thanks to pterostilbene). A double whammy. [very interesting]. Mitochondria is the focus in the anti-aging science.
(Episode 901) 1:57:10 – Fasting increases mitophagy. Fasting will selectively get rid of damaged cells or damaged mitochondria. Damaged cells and damaged parts of cells have a unique profile that allows the body to target them for deletion. [a truly beautiful system]