1:47:24 – Saturated fat along with refined sugar is what gives us the negative effects of cholesterol we normally associate cholesterol with. This is what the clinical trials say.
Carcinogens from Cooking Meat
1:50:02 – Cooking meat. When you cook meat at very high temperatures (and when charred) you produce heterocyclic amines which are known carcinogens. We have genes that have an ability to inactive these carcinogens. Some people have polymorphisms that allow them to detoxify these compounds effectively and some people don’t do it quite as well. Dr. Patrick believes that the IGF-1 that comes from meat should be a bigger concern because IGF-1 allows cancer to grow. However, eating meat coupled with regular exercise puts IGF-1 to better use so it is less of a concern.
1:51:32 – Isothiocyanates also inactivate the heterocyclic amines found in burnt meat. These are antioxidant compounds [discussed often in pervious summaries] that are found in cruciferous vegetables (broccoli sprouts, kale, cauliflower).
1:55:52 – Dr. Ames’ discovery that a severe folate deficiency caused mice cells in a lab to show massive DNA damage, comparable to being irradiated by an x-ray machine. This changed the course this doctor’s career as he shifted from cancer research to nutrition. Folate is needed to make a precursor to DNA; a deficiency in folate can lead to breaks in the DNA. Leafy greens are a great source of folate.
Astronauts and Telomeres
1:58:00 – Weird study showing that astronauts had exceptionally longer telomeres. This is very counter intuitive because exposure to radiation leads to DNA damage which leads to shorter telomeres.
Lutein; Vision; Learning and Memory; Crystallized Intelligence
1:59:00 – Lutein. Lutein is important for the rods and cones in your eyes; some people will take Lutein supplements to help with vision. Recently, researchers have found large amounts of lutein in the brain. Studies have shown that lutein helps with cognition; subjects have better learning and memory scores after taking lutein. Lutein also helps with something known as crystallized intelligence.
PQQ; Potent Antioxidant
2:00:14 – PQQ. PQQ is made by bacteria in the soil and it is a cofactor for their metabolic enzymes. Plants that grow in the same soil take up the PQQ. This compound has been shown to regulate and improve mitochondrial function. To understand how powerful PQQ is, we must first understand oxidation cycles of other compounds. Vitamin C can either be oxidized or reduced. Vitamin C goes through a cycle of oxidation where it can be oxidized 4 times. This helps alleviate oxidative stress on cells and DNA. PQQ does it 20,000 times. There are large amounts found in breast milk. Dr. Patrick takes 20mg a day because that is what the two clinical trials have shown.
2:02:54 – The supplement companies that Dr. Patrick relies on the most. Supplements are known to be risky because a lot of them either contain a fraction of what they say or none at all. Thorne is Patrick’s go-to brand. Patrick takes PQQ from Life Extension (she claims they are “pretty OK”). Some supplements have the NSF stamp; some of these supplements are probably more reliable because the NSF examines the facilities where the supplements are made.
2:09:41 – Parabiosis trails. A 2013 study showed signs of reversed aging in mice when the blood of younger mice was transferred into them. At the time of this podcast, researchers haven’t yet been able to replicate these results. So the benefits are not fully clear. The confusion comes from not knowing if it is the young blood that is doing something beneficial or the old blood doing something detrimental [this was discussed in a previous summary covering growth factor 11].
2:13:56 – Microbiome. Gut bacteria from young fish was transferred to the gut of old fish and this extended their lifespan by 40%. Researchers believe the reason for this result involves the immune system. The gut microbiome of a healthy 90 year old person looks like the gut of a 30 year old.
2:15:42 – Stevia. Stevia is a non-nutritive sweetener. The problem with artificial sweeteners is that it changes the composition of the gut microbiome so you are getting the kind of bacteria that are really good at harvesting glucose from the small intestine area; this can lead to problems like obesity. Stevia hasn’t yet been shown to have negative effects; only one study where mice were given a very large amount showed that stevia can have an effect on the hormonal profile. Stevia would be Dr. Patrick’s choice if she were to sweeten something.