Before Attempting a Diet; Biomarkers
1:15:00 – Dr. Patrick believes that anyone attempting any sort of diet should first measure these biomarkers: LDL particle size, triglycerides, inflammatory biomarkers (like C-Reactive Protein). You can ask your primary health doctor about getting these measured; Dr. Patrick also mentions True Health Diagnostics as a place to go to get a wide panel of biomarkers measured. WellnessFX is another one.
1:17:56 – Blood biomarkers are really key in knowing if a diet is working for you. Patrick explains how some people would go on a ketogenic diet and discover that their small dense LDL particle levels went up along with their inflammatory biomarkers. Later these people would use Dr. Patrick’s tool which informs the users on what should be known about the particular gene variations a user has, and found that a ketogenic diet was not for them. The PPAR alpha gene, a gene key for the process of ketogenesis, is missing in some people and this explained why this particular diet may not work for everyone and may go so far as to be detrimental.
1:21:36 – Dr. Patrick discussed the ketogenic diet. There is something important about it that allows your mitochondria to age better. Cyclic ketogenic dieting (every other week – one week on a ketogenic diet and the following week off) for whatever reason extended an animal’s health span and dramatically improved memory. Sometimes, a high fat diet can lead to the shutting down of the transport system that moves fat into the mitochondria (known as the carnitine palmityl transferase); if you keep bombarding the body with fat without a rest, you stop being able to use those fats in the desired pathway.
1:24:47 – Major circulating ketone body known as beta hydroxybutyrate and its anti-aging role. Work on this compound has shown that it is changing the expression of genes and activating longevity genes. The interesting part is that this compound is metabolized by mitochondria differently than other energy sources. In order to produce energy, you have to use something known as electron reducing equivalents (NAD, NADH, or FAD2H). Beta hydroxybutyrate doesn’t go through the pathway where these things are used; you end up with lower oxidative damage done to the mitochondria. You also reduce something known as protonophoric activity. Regular energy production is what produces damage; there seems to be something about beta hydroxybutyrate that is superior. Dr. Patrick was explaining time restricted eating [discussed in a previous summary in detail] and how this can be a source of beta hydroxybutyrate; she was also explaining cyclical ketogenic dieting but then the conversation was taken somewhere else.
Cutting Out Refined Sugar; The Best Thing You Can Do
1:32:15 – The one least complicated thing you can do to have the greatest impact on health is to cut out refined sugar. Dr. Patrick explains the issues with the gut when refined sugar is introduced [this was discussed in a previous summary]. Bacteria at the end of the colon digest the fiber that we cannot digest; when you don’t get fiber, these bacteria consume the mucin lining the gut wall. That is one problem. The other problem comes from small intestinal bacteria overgrowth; pathogenic bacteria can make its way into the small intestine and refined sugar is what feeds this bacteria. This leads to inflammatory problems once the pathogenic bacteria is introduced to immune cells.
1:36:17 – NAD and nicotinamide riboside. NAD levels deplete in tissues that are very energy demanding. If a part of the body requires a lot of energy – say, the immune system – NAD gets triaged to that part. As a result of this triage, metabolism in other parts of the body suffer. NAD has been shown in studies involving mice to reverse the effects of pro aging variations in the genome. We can supplementally increase the levels of NAD through it’s precursor: nicotinamide riboside. There are trials going on at the time of the podcast investigating the effects of nicotinamide riboside.
1:42:47 – Study on red meat. Largest observational study so far looking at protein intake and all cause mortality. The study found that consumption of meat correlated with a overall higher rate of all cause mortality. BUT when the data was sub-analyzed, the study told a different story. Subjects with one ‘other’ unhealthy habit such as smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, or being sedentary were shown to have a higher risk for all cause mortality; subjects with no other unhealthy habit (meaning they consumed red meat but had none of the habits listed) had no change in risk for all cause mortality compared to non meat eaters.