Running; Exercise Benefits; Endurance
37:56 – Exercise benefits; in particular running. Running helps Dr. Patrick with handling short term problems; running can induce a ‘daydreaming’ state where problems can be understood in a slightly different light. They discuss rumination and the negativity that rumination has been associated with; running induces this kind of thinking but with a slightly clearer head. There have been control trial showing these effects.
40:07 – Joe discusses his experience with running. At the time of the podcast, Joe has been running up hills for about a year. First time around it was very difficult; now he runs every week. He claims that his cardio for all other activities has improved significantly; he claims to have more than doubled his endurance.
44:33 – Dr. Patrick explains endurance. Aerobic capacity (otherwise known as VO2 max) is the capacity your body has to cary oxygen to parts of the body that need it. Once we hit age 25, our aerobic capacity decreases by 10% per decade. A study has shown that regularly doing some high intensity interval training can improve VO2 max by 12% (basically adding a decade back). The study had subjects do high intensity interval training for 24 classes over the course of 8 weeks.
UC Davis Study; Immune Response and Autism
54:32 – Primate immune response and effects on the fetus. Dr. Patrick uses this study from UC Davis to draw parallels to the vaccine discussion. A strong autoimmune response in the mother primates can produced antibodies that attack the fetus’ developing brain. The monkeys born from these mothers expressed autism like behaviors. It has been shown in humans that mothers of autistic children are 5 times more likely to have antibodies floating around in the blood that could attack fetal brain proteins. So there is a link between autoimmunity (particularly during pregnancy) and autism risk. Dr. Patricks opts for single administration of various vaccines for the growing child. Dr. Patrick was against getting vaccines during pregnancy, the UC Davis study provides good evidence as to why that makes sense.
57:37 – Research being done to try and understand the gene interactions with the immune system. There may be polymorphisms in people that could predispose a child to different neurological diseases. Regarding the vaccine conversation, it is hard to gain any information on the role of polymorphisms without actually administering the vaccine; this is the scary thing and is a huge dilemma for people.
1:05:32 – Genetic variation and it’s effect on how the body reacts to nutrition. A study from the Weizmann Institute took 800 different people and monitored their blood-glucose levels every 5 minutes. These people submitted their DNA and samples of their gut microbiome. Researchers in the study gave these people different foods: refined carbohydrates (white bread), complex carbohydrates (like a banana), and saturated fat (like cheese). They found that the glucose response for each administered food varied vastly according to the polymorphisms in their DNA; some people for example showed high blood glucose when they ate saturated fat, which is not really something someone thinks would happen. Gene variations like like PPAR Alpha, PPAR Gamma, FTO, and APOE4 all change the way the body metabolizes fats and transports cholesterol; some people with certain polymorphisms can eat a high saturated fat to poly unsaturated or mono unsaturated fat ratio diet and have more adverse effects. The point is people are different; look at your genes for some clarity on the subject.
1:08:33 – Epidemiology. Dr. Patrick quotes a joke told by her mentor: “people in Miami are born hispanic and die Jewish”. Epidemiology is the high level analysis of what has happened to a population without understanding the causal intricacies that cause the observed effects. It is a science involving observing correlative changes in populations. So Patrick uses this meta explanation to address the LDL question: “is it bad for you?”. As technology has improved we have been able to ditch the high level approach to answering this question and take a look at the causal intricacies that make up the underlying mechanisms of LDL. We have found that there are multiple kinds of LDL and the one to watch out for are the small dense LDL particles. Some forms of LDL have proved to be really good as they are responsible for transporting compounds to cells. This is an example of what happens when we put an emphasis on digging deeper and not simply relying on the epidemiological explanation of a collection of complex pathways.