Weight loss; Norepinephrine; Brown Fat
2:22:09 – Norepinephrine activated pathway. Norepinephrine activates a pathway in cells that cause the ramping up of metabolism. This can be observed when the body is exposed to a cold environment. Dr. Patrick recalls that when she first used the cryotherapy machine, she was shivering. The second time around, she didn’t shiver. What happens is the process of non-shivering thermogenesis. Norepinephrine causes the mitochondria in the adipose tissue to become active. This happens because norepinephrine increases the expression of a gene known as UCP1. UCP1 can cause the electrical charge of the outside and the inside of the mitochondria to uncouple (typically the mitochondria is negative on the inside and positive on the outside) and this scrambling of charges signals to the body that it must ramp up energy and mitochondria production in fat cells (brown fat). An increase of mitochondria in the fat can lead to fat reduction, this is sometimes a desired byproduct of cold exposure. This also leads to the less shivering when exposed to cold. Exposure to ten days (6 hours a day) of 50 degree air can increase the mitochondria in men’s fat by 38%.
2:26:09 – The point at which stress becomes beneficial. You need some of the bad stuff to get the good stuff. Dr. Patrick uses exercise as an example. Inflammation occurs during exercise and an hour after. After that one hour point, the benefits begin.
2:29:50 – Ice, water or air immersion in cold exposure. Water or ice is much better at extracting heat from the body. 20 seconds exposure to 40 degree C water is comparable to 2 minutes at the standard cryochamber temperature (-180F). Dr. Patrick recommends waiting one hour after strength training.
Omega-3s; Fat Burning; Exercise
2:34:26 – 2g of EPA and 1g of DHA increased fat burning during exercise by 27% and at resting by ~14%. It has been shown that these fat compounds increased the activity of UCP1, forming new mitochondria in the fat and, as mentioned above, led to fat loss.
Omega-3s; ALA in Plants
2:35:00 – Omega-3 plant based source; alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). There are important things to consider. Studies have shown that people who take only ALA need to take about 33.5 times more than they would if they took EPA and DHA, because our bodies are not very good at converting ALA into EPA and DHA, which are essential for the brain. [very important thing to know].
Things You Need From Meat
2:38:36 – Important micronutrients that may be missing from a non-meat diet. B12 is one and it is very important for production of neurotransmitters and the formation of myelin in the brain. Iron is another one; its bound to something called heme which is a protein inside hemoglobin. Iron, like B12, helps in the formation of myelin in the brain (allows signals to be transferred quickly). Iron deficiencies during pregnancy can cause abnormal brain structure. B12 is made in certain bacteria, so it doesn’t only come from animals. There was a study done in Tanzania, involving around 1000 school children, looking for a link between deficiencies in both Iron and B12 and low IQ. They found that children who were given the standard diet plus meat did much better on cognitive (arithmetic and reading) and physical tests over the course of two years. They also had more muscle mass and were more likely to exhibit leadership qualities.
2:45:48 – Things to note about iron. Iron is found in beans but in a form which we cannot digest (phytate). The bioavailability of iron from beans is 1.8 times less than meat. Women lose a lot of iron during menstruation; the RDF for iron is 8mg for men, for women it’s 18mg. If you are vegetarian you need to account for the 1.8 times less bioavailability. For endurance athletes, hemolysis occurs and this results in iron loss. You also don’t want too much iron because this can lead to an increase amount of free iron, which according to Dr. Patrick: “is like dynamite for the body”. It reacts with enzymes and screws up energy production. Some people suffer from a polymorphism in a gene which leads to too much iron overload, increasing the number of free iron. This condition is known as hemochromatosis, and its very common. Getting iron levels measured is important.
Vitamin C and Heme
2:48:27 – Vitamin C increases the absorption of non-heme iron: iron not found in meat. So vegetarians should eat beans with a citrus fruit or something with vitamin C. Also, it’s important to account for the decrease in bioavailability that comes from iron from beans.
2:51:36 – Studies have shown that vitamin D2 may inhibit vitamin D3’s function in muscle tissue and thus vitamin D2 may have negative effects. D3 is considered the best supplement regarding vitamin D.
Essential Amino Acids
2:53:06 – Essential amino acids. Typically these nine essential amino acids are found in animal protein. Studies have shown that taking in these nine essential amino acids from an animal diet is more effective for building muscle than a plant based diet.
2:55:51 – Saturated fats. Saturated fats increase the amount of LDL cholesterol which is not bad unless you have inflammation as a result of consuming refined carbohydrates (specifically fructose or high fructose corn syrup). Small dense LDL is the one to worry about, but these don’t form unless you have inflammation as a result of refined sugar consumption. [more on this in prior summaries]