42:43 – Curcumin (found in turmeric) was discussed before on the podcast and is explained in a previous summary. Curcumin is known to have a hard time becoming bioavailable. Curcumin can’t get passed the stomach and intestines very well, so it doesn’t get absorbed as efficiently. Whatever doesn’t get absorbed will swiftly be taken away. There is a formulation that includes curcumin that Dr. Patrick likes where the curcmin is placed in a phytosome (a phospholipid container that contains a given compound – curcumin in this case) and this structure increases bioavailability. Curcumin is a very potent anti-inflammatory.
52:10 – There exists a variation in a gene that allows certain people to turn alcohol into acetate, which is ketone. There are surprising benefits that come from this.
Sensory Gating; Nicotine
56:37 – Sensory gating and nicotine. Some people have less effective sensory gating abilities, so they are overloaded with sensory information and have a hard time dedicating attention to something. Nicotine negates this for around 15 minutes, this can explain why smokers need a hit typically 15 minutes after a smoke. Dr. Patrick theorizes that this explains why a lot of schizophrenics are chain smokers.
58:43 – Dosage dependent hormetic benefits. Like everything, dosage is a key factor when determining the effectiveness of a treatment. This includes stressing the body for hormetic purposes. Isothiocyanates, for example, are very beneficial in regular doses. But they can compete with iodine for transport into the thyroid; this becomes a problem if the subject takes kilograms a day. The point is, you want just enough to cause a hormetic response; you want to cross a certain threshold and not go further beyond that. Alcohol is a popular subject regarding dosage, and Dr. Patrick agrees with the common understanding that a little bit (particularly red wine) is beneficial. The tipping point is always difficult to determine, but understanding that there is one is a benefit in itself.
Painkillers; NSAIDs; Ibuprofen; COX Enzymes
1:09:31 – NSAIDs; Ibuprofen. Ibuprofen inhibits the COX2 enzyme. This enzyme produces other proteins that are involved in inflammation. When this enzyme is inhibited, inflammation is blunted (inflammation causes pain, so this explains the numbing effects). COX2 also plays a role in maintaining the smooth muscle cells; when COX2 is inhibited, the blood vessels are not as relaxed and this can lead to problems where plaques form on the walls of the vessels. In Dr. Patrick’s opinion, ibuprofen should be reserved for serious pain. Other NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) that select only COX2 are worse, because ibuprofen targets COX2 and COX1 (which apparently is not as bad as singling out COX2). The FDA has put warning labels on NSAIDs to communicate the increased risk of heart attack and stroke.
Heat Shock Proteins
1:18:23 – Hot yoga; heat shock proteins. When the body is hot, it releases dynorphin in an attempt to cool down. We have discussed Dr. Patrick’s explanation of the increase in µ-opiod receptors in a previous summary. Basically, there is an increase in the number of these receptors (which bind with endorphins), so when you experience something positive after this increase you are far more sensitive to positive feelings. Anything causing you to sweat will release dynorphins.
Lucid Dreaming; Sauna
1:28:30 – Lucid dreaming from sauna and nootropics. There have been some accounts of lucid dreaming from sauna use, but Dr. Patrick doesn’t know of any study done observing this. Acetylcholine has been shown to induce intense lucid dreaming. Galantamine was brought to Patrick’s attention, as it is also known for inducing lucid dreaming.
Blueberries; Antioxidants; NRF2
1:31:07 – Blueberries. Blueberries are known to contain anthocyanin, another plant insecticide. Anthocyanin can recognize a sequence of DNA called NRF2 and activate it. NRF2 produces a large number of proteins responsible for DNA repair, antioxidation, and anti-inflammation. Dr. Patrick has studied obese individuals, one group of which was given a blueberry powder (containing anthocyanin) equivalent to 2 cups of blueberries and the other group, a placebo. Joe derails the explanation.
Refined Sugar; Fructose; High Fructose Corn Syrup; ATP Trapping
1:45:33 – Refined sugar; fructose; ATP trapping. Refined sugar (sucrose) is 50% glucose and 50% fructose. Fructose doesn’t get absorbed by most cells, it can only be metabolized in the liver. Fructose and ATP can bind together in an attempt to be part of an enzymatic reaction. This is known as ATP trapping and this signals to the brain that there isn’t enough energy and thus there is a feeling of low satiation. Not feeling satiated can lead to eating more – the brain thinks you haven’t been fed.
1:47:29 – High fructose corn syrup. When sucrose (half glucose half fructose) is introduced to the body, sucrase in the gut slowly cleaves and digests the sucrose, this process is “not that irritating on the gut”. However, when the gut is introduced to high fructose corn syrup, the digesting of this compound is irritating on the gut. ATP trapping is also exponentially increased because of the increase in fructose.