Fiber; Gut Bacteria
1:51:09 – Fiber. If the gut does not receive enough fiber, the gut bacteria will start to eat away at the gut barrier as it can be used as a source of carbohydrates. Fiber is the most potent thing that regulates gut health. In a low fiber environment, a certain bacteria (the name escapes Dr. Patrick) thrives. This bacteria has a flagella (tail) and is capable of swimming up to the small intestines. Bacteria generally is not supposed to be in the small intestine, they typically reside in the colon (large intestine). This is known as small intestine bacterial overgrowth. They swim to the small intestine because that is where the food is. This bacteria can release zonulin when in the small intestine which triggers openings in the small intestine because zonulin communicates to the rest of the body that glucose is present. This opening allows immune cells to recognize the bacteria and inflammation ensues. The best thing we can do is get a wide spectrum of fiber.
2:01:34 – Joe and Dr. Patrick discuss the various food bar brands that aren’t full of refined sugar. Dr. Patrick believes Quest has a good selection of healthy bars, which don’t have much sugar. Joe likes Primal Kitchen bars which have 4 grams per bar. Dr. Patrick believes the way to go is just to eat whole foods.
2:05:20 – Dark chocolate benefits. There is EGCG which is what is in green tea. Dark chocolate has been shown to grow brain cells and kill cancer cells. It’s also good for your skin by preventing collagen from being broken down. And on top of all these benefits, dark chocolate also produces a hormedic response, activating genes responsible for anti-oxidation.
2:06:45 – There is a gene responsible for taking glutathione and putting it in a place where it can prevent damage to the cells. There are individuals who have a polymorphism in this gene where this mechanism is more active. When they take vitamin E or induce stress (typically considered enough to be hormedic), the gene is no longer active. This is an example of the importance of knowing your individual genetic dispositions. Tools like 23andMe paired with Dr. Patrick’s database referencing application (free) can make things more clear.
2:08:01 – Dr. Patrick explains CRISPR. CRISPR allows researchers to find sections of the DNA sequence, cut out the section, and replace it with a desired alternative section. Up until CRISPR, genetic manipulation was largely done via distributing genetic material hoping it would find its way and replace the domestic sequences.
2:10:39 – Cryotherapy. Cryotherapy inhibits the enzyme that break down collagen, known as collagenase. It helps with arthritis and keeps the skin in good condition. Cold exposure in general has been shown to increase norepinephrine 2 fold. Norepinephrine, in addition to learning benefits and feeling good, is a potent anti-inflammatory as it inhibits the production of TNF alpha, which is a signaling molecule to your immune cells indicating an infection. When signaled, the immune system responds with an increase in hypochlorite which causes tissue damage and pain. Norepinephrine quiets this down. It has been shown that 10 days of cryotherapy (one session per day) in a row increases the expression of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase by 68%. These enzymes work with the glutathione we produce and take in to provide a number of benefits [more on glutathione in other summaries].
Blind Spots in Medicine
2:20:03 – Blind spots abundant in the medical community. A lot of scientists may be in a loop where they have to debunk things. This can be considered a human error because this closes scientists off to some valuable truth that may exist and they just don’t want to see it. Dr. Patrick believes that there is a healthy level of criticism that is needed to make discoveries but sometimes too much can be a fault.