High Intensity Interval Training; Long Term Potentiation
2:10 – High intensity interval training. Because you cannot get oxygen to the muscles quick enough, the cells create energy by converting glucose outside of the mitochondria and create lactate as a byproduct. This production increases the uptake of lactate in the brain. Lactate fuels norepinephrine production in the brain; norepinephrine has a role in making the connections between neurons stronger so that you can learn and remember better (known as long term potentiation).
4:37 – Exercise itself is a stress on the body, so in terms of damage exercise on its own is not good for the body. But the stress response is what is valuable. The brain prepares for the next time it will experience stress; the preparation includes activation of genes that help us deal with stress. Even something as small as breathing in oxygen opens the door to the harmful effects reactive oxygen species have on the body; the body being prepared is a potent defense and mitigates the damage.
11:52 – A study mentioned on Radiolab recorded populations and measured walking speed and syllables per minute. The study showed that the the larger the city’s population, the faster individuals spoke and the faster they walked.
Resistance Training; Bone Density
16:25 – A hormone known as irisin is released during resistance training and it plays a role in helping maintain bone density. Osteocalcin is also released during resistance training and is responsible for taking calcium found in the blood and moving it into bones. 30% of the US population doesn’t get enough calcium. Calcium is also used in the blood, and if there isn’t enough the body will take calcium away from the bones. Therefore it is important to keep adequate levels to ensure this balance is stable.
Vitamin K; Spermidine
18:09 – Vitamin K. Vitamin K1 is found in plants and it plays a role in blood coagulation. When enough vitamin K is used in the coagulation, any leftover vitamin K stays around and activates osteocalcin which pulls calcium into the bones. Vitamin K2 is made in bacteria which can be found in certain cheeses, organ meat, and particularly nattō (fermented soybeans – which has K2 levels far above the other two sources mentioned). Nattō also contains a lot of spermidine which clears away damaged cells in the body.
Senescence; Damaged Cells
19:19 – Damaged cells and senescence. As the cell gets damaged throughout the course of its life, the telomeres are the ones who take the hit in an attempt to protect the rest of the DNA. As they shorten the future shortening is accelerated because they cannot protect the DNA as effectively. When it gets too short, a cell becomes senescent; it sits around and doesn’t metabolize anything yet doesn’t go away. The cell, in this senescent state, will secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and trigger an immune response. In fact, the secretion of these cytokines can damage other cells nearby (which is why one grey hair can cause other grey hairs around it).
20:53 – Back to spermidine. The spermidine can trigger autopagy, the process of clearing away the senescent cell so it can’t do damage. Researchers in a study engineered mice using CRISPR to clear away senescent cells (by giving immune cells the ability to recognize the proteins around the senescent cells and clear it away) and the mice lived 30% longer. Resveratrol also helps the autophagic process. These compounds are part of plant defenses and induce a hormedic response in us (stresses and conditions us). 1000mg a day can induce a response that activates the same sort of genes that are activated when fasting (another beneficial instance of stress on the body which helps with conditioning and eliminating senescent cells). Resveratrol activates the Sirt-1 pathway. In a study involving monkeys, resveratrol deficient monkeys fed a high fat high sugar diet saw a 40% increase in stiffness of arteries. Monkey fed the same diet along with resveratrol saw the negative effects completely negated.