2:07:13 – Does all cholesterol come from animals only? This question isn’t really answered, but Dr. Patrick explains how the body makes it using Acetyl-CoA as the precursor. Acetyl-CoA comes from carbohydrates. If you are not getting cholesterol from your diet, it is possible that LDL production is slowed. Cholesterol is explained in-depth in the previous summary of the podcast.
2:09:53 – Avocados. Dr. Patrick eats (via smoothie) 1 avocado a day. Avocados increase the absorption of carotenoids such as beta carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin.
2:10:48 – Dr. Patrick addresses the nonsense behind the misconception that cancer cannot thrive in a high pH environment. The reason this is misconstrued is due to the fact that cancer cells secrete lactic acid. A cell becoming cancerous goes from an energy process involving oxygen plus food to a process only involving glucose and the byproduct is lactate which becomes lactic acid. Apparently, if you introduce oxygen to the cancer cell and it uses its mitochondria to make energy (by using up the oxygen), this process can kill the cancer cell through the detrimental effects oxygen has when used as energy (some chemotherapy drugs do this).
Hot Yoga; Heat Shocking
2:13:30 – Hot yoga. Training in heat has been shown to have performance enhancements. Patrick explains that the benefits are very similar to that of the sauna (blood to the heart and activation of heat shock proteins) [discussed in a prior summary]. Tolerance for exercise increases because exposures to the heat can make an individual more accustomed to that heated state. It has been shown in mouse studies that heat stress protect neurons from cell death.
2:17:40 – Dynorphins. Dynorphins (the counter to endorphin) are released when experiencing discomfort; they signal the brain to create more receptors that bind to beta endorphins which are released when you exercise or expose yourself to heat. This process is the mechanism behind feeling good after something like a workout or a sauna session. Dr. Patrick explains that when she would use it in the morning, she would feel much better and handle the stress of work better.
2:20:21 – Cold therapy after injury. These therapies have been shown to help patients suffering from brain injury. Dr. Patrick is not very confident in a solid answer, which is understandable because an answer depends on many things. However, in the instance of an overactive immune response, cold therapy can be beneficial as it reduces the inflammatory response.
2:21:56 – Myostatin inhibitors and administration in people. Myostatin itself inhibits muscle growth. Myostatin inhibitors stop this inhibition and therefore muscles grow abnormally large. Studies in mice have found that when myostatin is inhibited, the mice live longer. The study that Dr. Patrick refers to used CRISPR [the technology was just making its way into the public eye at the time of this podcast].
2:28:13 – CRISPR. The technology came about when scientists found that there was viral DNA present in bacteria. One scientist theorized that the DNA exists in the bacteria because it is part of a mechanism used to combat the virus at a later point; the bacteria is now prepared and understands the threat. There exists a protein known as CAS-9 that we all make that can recognize these sequences; CAS-9 also cuts and replaces stands, making this a very precise process.
2:32:13 – Dr. Patrick’s vision for the future of CRISPR. We may be able to take stem cells and alter a polymorphism so that we have a desired sequence. As of now we can make stem cells from any cell and once we understand the “cocktail” of environment that turns that stem cell into the desired cell we can transfer it back into the body.
2:35:26 – The placental stem cells can form almost any cell, including neurons, liver cells, and heart muscle cells. Preservation of the placenta source: you don’t want to isolate and freeze the stem cells, this makes them less likely to live and form other cells. Programming the stem cell to become another cell is dependent on the environment the cell will be in (the “cocktail” mentioned earlier).
Micronutrients; Inflammation; Serotonin
2:42:06 – The role of micronutrients in the serotonin pathway. Vitamin D activates the gene that turns tryptophan into serotonin [mentioned in a earlier summary]. Omega-3s reduce the inflammatory molecules known as E2 series prostaglandins which get into the brain and stop the serotonin from being released [also mentioned in an earlier summary]. Vitamin D and omega-3s play a vital role in maintaining a healthy serotonin pathway. Abnormal activity in the serotonin pathway can lead to impulsivity.
2:43:54 – When you are exhausted or inflamed due to stress, tryptophan gets converted mostly into compounds that regulate the immune system (instead of being converted into serotonin). So there is a diversion towards a pathway, depriving the brain of serotonin. Not getting enough sleep can lead to impulsive behavior [there isn’t any technical information provided because it’s been a while since she read the study]. Dr. Patrick theorizes that people with serotonin problems (impulsivity and depression) need to supplement with vitamin D and omega-3s.