1:14:03 – Current issue with the medical field. Dr. Patrick explains how the current generation practicing medicine puts little emphasis on the importance of prevention and a large emphasis on treatment. She believes that when the current generation dies off and a new generation comes around, the emphasis will be more balanced.
1:18:46 – Results of taking VSL 3. There was a dramatic increase of good bacteria in the gut along with an increase in biodiversity. Good bacteria produces lactic acid, and because of this, pathogenic bacteria cannot survive in this environment. Lactobacillus, a common strain found in many probiotics, produces lactic acid and helps create an environment where pathogenic bacteria cannot survive.
1:20:21 – Lactic acid. Lactic acid has an interesting property where it is the ingredient used in a thermodynamically favorable process where no extra energy is used to make energy out of lactic acid. The transporter found on the mitochondria takes in the lactic acid and produces energy and no energy is needed to make the conversion. Lactate is the preferred source of energy for the brain. You can administer lactate and the new energy source can divert glucose to a process in the brain where it can become a precursor for glutathione (an antioxidant).
1:29:08 – Rogan and Patrick discuss compression pants. Dr. Patrick doesn’t know anything about this.
Antibiotics; Cognitive Function
1:43:01 – Antibiotics and cognitive function. When you take an antibiotic, you are wiping out a lot of the microbiome. Studies have shown that swapping the fecal matter between an anxious mouse and a normal mouse will make the normal one anxious and visa versa. There was a study where people who took lactobacillus casei (a strain of bacteria) became less depressed and got off of antidepressants they were taking. People who took lactobacillus rhamnosus became less anxious. We don’t know why this result occurs, but there are a few theories. One theory is the rhamnosus produces an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the gut known as gaba. This inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines; inflammatory cytokines can cross the blood brain barrier and they stop serotonin from being released.
1:45:59 – Vagal nerve. This nerve is a direct line connecting the brain and the gut; we are just starting to understand it. This is another way that neurotransmitters produced by gut bacteria can communicate with the brain.
Meditation; Floatation Tanks
1:51:58 – Meditation and floatation tanks. For Dr. Patrick, the tank provides a good structure for meditation. Meditation is known to slow brain aging. Studies have shown subjects who were told to meditate for 8 weeks increased the brain matter in 5 different regions. Other studies have shown that the brains of 50 year olds who meditate have the brains of 25 year olds. Meditation has been shown to slow aging in general, through activation of the enzyme telomerase. Telomerase is typically not active.
Telomere Benefits from Meditation
1:54:28 – Telomeres shorten during cell division because the machinery responsible for DNA replication misses the section at the very end; this process is repeated over and over again. You can rebuild telomeres thanks to the enzyme known as telomerase. Telomerase is not active in all cells; it is active in stem cells. Meditation activates the gene that makes telomerase, it becomes active and rebuilds the telomeres. [very interesting discovery]
1:57:16 – Cancer cells are able to activate telomerase and use it to their advantage because somehow telomerase can aid in a damaged cell avoiding programmed cell death. This is why there is concern over supplements like TA-65, which is known to activate telomerase. Joe’s friend’s father took TA-65 and his vision got better.
Polymorphisms; Vitamin D; All Cause Mortality
2:00:01 – The number of polymorphisms that affect vitamins and mineral metabolism make it impossible to provide one regiment for any individual. Many people for example, need to take higher doses of vitamin D3 because their bodies have a hard time turning D3 into the pre-hormone. These polymorphisms have been linked with an increase risk in all cause mortality. There are companies like Promethease, where an individual an export his or her 23andMe data and the data can be put into context by Promethease’s database of polymorphisms. Dr. Patrick’s site also provides a way where you can export the 23andMe data and cross reference with what Dr. Patrick was interested in and make an informed decision on what changes to make.
2:02:10 – Patrick discusses other polymorphisms. A very common one results in an inability to use folate efficiently. Folate is important because it helps make DNA and the precursors to epigenetic groups. Taking methylfolate is a way around this deficiency. Another common polymorphism causes inefficient conversion of beta carotene into vitamin A; as a consequence the immune system suffers. Yet another common polymorphism is a variation in a gene that causes ineffective metabolization of certain fats; this leads to some individuals who are on a ketogenic diet to actually gain weight.