Cryotherapy; Weight loss
42:20 – The norepinephrine ramps up metabolism by signaling to the mitochondria that the body needs energy. Norepinephrine activates uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) which tricks the mechanism the mitochondria use to determine if the body needs energy into thinking that the body needs more energy (this mechanism involves an electric gradient). This is the body’s way of making heat when cold. People actually lose weight when they do this cold shocking often. Dr. Patrick says that the individual should be immersed in cold water for a period of 20 minutes or so.
45:13 – Dr. Patrick talks about an interesting study that took about 1000 young individuals and looked at many different biomarkers to see if there was anything that can be linked to the rates of aging. At the start of the study, the subjects were 26. Researchers looked at telomere length, cholesterol. C-reactive protein and 15 other things. They checked back at age 32 and again at 38. Even though these people were the same chronological age, their telomeres represented very different biological ages. Some looked ten years younger, while others looked ten years older. There is a correlation between physical appearance and the biological age. [I don’t believe any other correlations were discussed, I’m sure she had something to say about the 18 factors that were studied]
Diet and Cardiovascular Disease
48:08 – Damage accumulates over time and our body’s ability to repair damage diminishes. There comes a point where there is too much to be repaired; there is an overload and things start to shut down. In the US, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death followed by cancer. Studies have shown that cardiovascular disease is 80% preventable by diet.
Saturated Fat; Cholesterol; LDL; HDL
49:03 – A while ago, we were told that decreasing saturated fat and decreasing cholesterol intake was essential for a healthy heart. Dr. Patrick believes this thought caused much more harm than good, because people opted for trans-fats which are known to be much worse (recently banned at the time of the podcast).
51:41 – LDL and HDL cholesterol. LDL is a lipoprotein that transports cholesterol to cells; your cells need cholesterol because they are essential for the repairing of cells. LDL makes its way back to the liver for recycling. HDL brings cholesterol from the cells into the liver to be packaged. When LDL provides the cell with cholesterol, a small part of the LDL gets cleaved off and the remaining LDL will be returned to the liver for recycling. If the gut were to be inflamed, the immune response releases endotoxins which can bind to LDL; if LDL is bounded to a endotoxin compound, it cannot be returned to the liver for recycling. This endotoxin-bounded LDL becomes what is known as small dense LDL and when other things bind to it (because the body does not recognize this strange compound) plaque begins to build in the arteries. High levels of endotoxins create problems and can lead to heart disease. So saturated fats are not bad unless you are suffering from chronic inflammation at the gut level.
Gut Bacteria; Fiber; Inflammation
59:18 – The gut bacteria need energy to create the mucin barrier that keeps immune cells from entering the gut and causing inflammation. The gut likes energy in the form of short-chain fatty acids and these are generated from fermentable fibers. Commensal bacteria (considered ‘good bacteria’) create the short-chain fatty acids from these fermentable fibers and 60%-90% of the fatty acids go to the gut epithelial cells which create the mucin barrier. If starved, the gut cells will begin breaking down mucin; refined sugar can starve certain important bacteria.
1:03:56 – VSL 3 – the probiotic that Dr. Patrick takes. At the time of the podcast, there were 25 publications involving this specific probiotic (which has 6 different strains) showing many gut benefits along with positive neurotrophic effects on the brain. Apparently you can send your fecal matter over to centers where you can get a read on which bacteria you are missing. In Patrick’s case, she discovered that she had lower levels of commensal bacteria along with a population of antibiotic resistant bacteria that has been irritating the gut. The solution, she found, was to use garlic and ginseng. It fixed it after multiple instances of antibiotic administration which did not help (obvious in hindsight); the approach the doctors took made it clear to Dr. Patrick that there should be different approaches to treatment; specifically, nutrition oriented.