58:01 – Dr. Patrick discusses her work with obese and insulin resistant children. Giving obese people a micronutrient bar shows that it takes much longer for obese people to reap the benefits. Dr. Patrick and her team believe that the reason for this delay is that generally the resources and energy in an obese person is being directed (or as Dr. Patrick puts it: “triaged”) towards fixing problems.
1:00:30 – Glutathione. This is a major antioxidant in the brain. It has been linked with many positive benefits, including reducing the risk of alzheimer’s. Our cells produce glutathione but the genes responsible for production become less active as our bodies age. Oral intake of glutathione is pointless because there are no transport mechanisms for getting the compound into the cell (remember it is made inside of the cell). There is liposomal glutathione (glutathione covered by a phospholipid later), which can be transported into the cell. However, the enzymes that will end up using glutathione decrease in quantity as time goes on. These enzymes are important because they render the glutathione effective an an antioxidant. [not much was discussed about these enzymes – I believe the enzymes are glutathione peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase]
1:06:51 – Mouse study about traumatic brain injury and glutathione application. A mouse with a brain injury was given glutathione applied topically (placed on top of the crack in the skull), and 70% of the cell death was prevented. The question remains; can this be done to humans? Can the glutathione be useful if directly applied to the brain?
Turmeric; Curcumin and Turmerone
1:09:24 – Other ways to increase glutathione. Liposomal glutathione is one, but as mentioned in the podcast, you would have to consume a lot for it to be effective (there is debate on how to take this, Dr. Patrick is concerned with a lot of it being absorbed by gut bacteria and thus never making it to the brain – she says injection would bypass the gut). Turmeric is a great way to increase glutathione. Curcumin is one bioactive component of turmeric and it gets into the brain and has antioxidant qualities just on its own. It also activates the glutathione related genes (producing glutathione peroxidase, glutathione synthase, and glutathione reductase which recycles glutathione which has been used). On top of those two things, curcumin also blunts the expression of NF-kB genes and therefore turns off the genes responsible for cascading inflammation. A “triple whammy”.
Piperine and Xenobiotics
1:14:16 – Xenobiotics are things that are neither a vitamin nor a mineral, it is foreign to the body. EGCGs and polyphenols from green tea are considered xenobiotics. Because it is foreign to the body, the liver acts quickly and metabolizes the xenobiotics. Piperine (found in black pepper) inhibits metabolism of xenobiotics. It has been shown that if you administer curcumin and piperine you can increase the bioavailability of curcumin by 2000%. (in humans). [very interesting point]
1:16:56 – You don’t want to go crazy with piperine because (in Dr. Patrick’s mind) you may be increasing the half life of other things, particularly drugs which may not be meant to last as long in the body. So get an idea of the possible effects piperine may have on other things you may be taking.
Turmerone and Stem Cells
1:17:46 – The other bioactive compound in turmeric is called turmerone. Turmerone, like curcumin, blunts the activation of inflammation genes. In addition to that, it repairs brain damage because it causes the proliferation of stem cells in the brain. There are two regions in the brain that have stem cells which allow us to make new cells: the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus. Turmerone causes the proliferation of stem cells in the subventricular zone. Studies in mice have shown the administration of a high dose of turmerone increased the proliferation by 60%. These mice performed better on learning and memory tests.
1:22:37 – The olfactory bulb and how a diminished sense of smell is a good marker for alzheimer’s. The olfactory bulb (which is responsible for your sense of smell) requires a constant supply of neural stem cells – which come from the subventricular zone. So when this supply is lowered, your sense of smell goes away. The turmerone given to the mice in the study helped them regain their sense of smell.