1:03:48 – Joe and Dr. Patrick discuss various cancer myths. They cover things like sugar and the pH of the blood and how these things affect cancer growth.
Kale; Isothiocyanates; Cancer
1:11:41 – Dr. Patrick talks about kale. Kale produces glucosinolates and is [seemingly] similar to the polyphenols in plants which act as the plant’s defense mechanisms. Myrosinase, an enzyme found in the cruciferous plants, convert glucosinolates into isothiocyanates; isothiocyanates have been documented extensively and they have been shown to kill cancer cells. Isothiocyanates act through the mechanisms which use stress to condition the body for future stress as discussed prior; these compound turn on genes linked to combatting cancer cells. Cooking the kale denatures the myrosinase, so have it raw if you want to keep the myrosinase in tact.
1:19:27 – Oxalic acid in kale and spinach. Dr. Patrick sites a study where mice were fed spinach (which contains the most oxalic acid found in foods) prepared in different methods to test if these preparations would inactivate the oxalic acid (so it wouldn’t bind up magnesium and calcium which oxalic acid is known to do). The absorption of magnesium and calcium were very close to the same in all preparations, and there was magnesium and calcium found in the kidneys. However, the main concern regarding oxalic acid was that it was said to have caused kidney stones. Dr. Patrick believes for kidney stones to form, one would have to consume pounds of kale a day.
1:23:31 – Dr. Patrick stresses the importance of hormesis and simplifies the costs and benefits associated with the process when one consumes things like isothiocyanates. Stress turns on genes that provide more good than the initial stress is bad.
1:27:08 – Juicing. Dr. Patrick agrees with Joe that making smoothies is a better option.
Heme; Putrefactive Bacteria; Red Meat
1:29:04 – Putrefactive bacteria. They convert sulfate into hydrogen sulfide in their energy process just as we do with oxygen. They need a cofactor known as heme, which comes from red meat, in order to do this. Hydrogen sulfide competitively binds to enzymes in the gut. This is a problem because other bacteria in the gut need these enzymes (now rendered ineffective) to convert oxygen into carbon dioxide. So too much red meat can kill off bacteria that need oxygen.
Misinformation in Medical Publications
1:34:00 – Misinformation propagation. Dr. Patrick explains the scientific process used in determining a given drug or treatment’s effectiveness. She uses this to address how many people bypass the standards and protocols dictated by the scientific method and thus spread misinformation. More specifically, she explains that if a study was meant to study the effects being vitamin D deficient, the study cannot just pick random individuals but rather must select individuals who are deficient in vitamin D, bring them up to adequate levels, and then record the results. Some problematic studies can twist things around when we ignore the fact that we must sample the population based on what is dictated by what we are trying to figure out, and not arbitrarily picking at random. Random selection has it’s place in determining treatment effectiveness, but it can misrepresent the truth if applied everywhere.
Vitamin E; Selenium; alpha-/gamma- Tocopherol
1:46:29 – Vitamin E and selenium [discussed later]. Reactive oxygen species can damage not only DNA but also the phospholipid bilayer that makes up the membranes of the cells. Vitamin E is fat soluble so it can make its way into the bilayer and prevent the oxygen radical from damaging the bilayer. A lack of vitamin E can cause the bilayer to become rigid overtime and make it more difficult to move material throughout the cell. The bilayer becoming rigid is a part of aging but vitamin E can slow this down. There are a few forms of vitamin E; the one that is optimal for this process is alpha-tocopherol.
1:48:32 – Gamma-tocopherol (vitamin E discussion continued). This gamma form of vitamin E is also an antioxidant but more specifically it is an anti-nitration compound. Just as metabolism produces damaging reactive oxygen species, your immune system produces reactive nitrogen species. These compounds (just as reactive oxygen species) damage DNA, fats, and proteins. Gamma-tocopherol – the variation of vitamin E – basically act as the antioxidant against reactive nitrogen species produced by your immune system. [I consider this a very useful point because until now I – and I would assume most – do not know of the damage caused by the immune system]
1:49:30 – If you take too much alpha-tocopherol, you deplete your gamma-tocopherol, as many studies have shown. Studies have shown that men who were given large doses of alpha-tocopherol had their levels of gamma-tocopherol significantly diminished and may have led to their 17% increase in risk for prostate cancer. Part of the study had men take large amounts of alpha-tocopherol and selenium (at this point selenium becomes important). Apparently, the increased risk was understood to come from men who were already selenium deficient. Furthermore, men who took selenium and alpha-tocopherol (or men who were NOT deficient in selenium) did not suffer the lowered levels of gamma tocopherol. Selenium somehow lessens this depleting effect.