22:55 – Dr. Patrick addresses misinformation. She claims the idea that most Americans get all the micronutrients they need from their diet is false. National Institute of Medicine performing the surveys debunks this claim as Dr. Patrick has stated prior [Part 1].
24:13 – Irresponsible press release regarding supplementing vitamins and minerals. Dr. Patrick addresses the irresponsibility of a particular study where a dose of 100IU of vitamin D was considered a high dose. Dr. Patrick takes 4000IU a day, which is appropriate for a typical adult. The point is to be cautious and get context when reading studies.
Electron Reducing Equivalents; Reactive Oxygen Species
27:56 – DNA repair enzymes. Mitocondria generate electron reducing equivalents during the Krebs cycle. These electron reducing equivalents have hydrogen (1 electron and 1 proton). The electrons get passed around and with the addition of oxygen you are creating superoxide anon (a reactive oxygen species). We are constantly doing this. These reactive oxygen species damage things around it include lipids and DNA.
28:58 – reactive oxygen species reacting with DNA. DNA gets damaged; but must nevertheless be replicated. When there is a break (caused by the reactive oxygen species), the replication process may place a nucleotide that isn’t supposed to be there. You can really screw something up.
30:02 – Prevention. We have DNA repair enzymes; they repair the mistake caused by replication. These repair enzymes require Magnesium. DNA damage is not something that makes itself known in the short term. If it continues then you may get damage in an important part of DNA (like tumor suppression genes). You might be lacking in magnesium but the really detrimental affects wont make themselves known until much later, but the process is happening right now.
32:42 – Folate. Folate is an essential B vitamin and is used to make new DNA (it’s needed to make thymine). A lack of folate can increase the problem caused by a break because now we are lacking another nucleotide base [I assume based on what I heard] .
33:31 – If you have cancer, things good for you can also be good for the cancerous growth. The cancer cells love folate because it allows them to propagate with less problems.
Publications and Negativity Bias
34:41 – Dr. Patrick firmly believes the motivation for these bad studies is a play for attention. People want people to see their work and at times they accomplish this by irresponsible means. Negative and possibly false things get press. The point here is to understand the motive behind publications.
39:00 – Dr. Patrick criticizes more studies and urges people who are publishing and reading studies to look at numerical figures in context. So for example, an increase in vitamin D from 10ng/ml to 20ng/ml is still inadequate because it’s under the 30ng/ml mark considered adequate – even though the amount in the blood stream was doubled.
40:13 – Vitamin D3 is the optimal choice for supplementing vitamin D.
43:40 – Dr. Patrick addresses nonsense
47:37 – Dr. Patrick discusses ‘shades of grey’ in medicine and how most things are not black and white. She provides a specific example addressing why you don’t want too much homocysteine around (folate is a methyl donor and reduces homocysteine in the blood by donating and converting homocysteine back into methionine). The point is that 40% of North Americans have a polymorphism in a gene called MTHFR; this 40% cannot re-methylate the homocysteine and they end up having more of this bad homocysteine in the blood (leads to vascular problems and cognitive decline). Therefore, this 40% needs to supplement with folic acid to compensate; they need much more than the average. Shades of grey.